The history of Namibia is not well chronicled. Its isolated geographic position limited contact with the outside world until the 19th century.
Explorer, missionary, trader, conqueror, and settler sources are neither comprehensivenotable for accuracy, nor unbiased. Professional historiography is a post development in the country, and the political events of the years since then have coloured most of the written history. The earliest Namibians were Sannomadic peoples with a survival-oriented culture based on hunting and gathering.
Their clans were small and rarely federated, and their military technology was so weak that, even before the arrival of the Europeans, they had been pushed back to the desert margins.
Rock paintings and engravings at Twyfelfontein, in northwest Namibia, have shed light on the early San hunter-gatherers who once inhabited the area. Stone artifactshuman figures, and animals such as giraffes, rhinoceroses, and zebras are depicted.
The first conquerors in southern Namibia were the Nama. They had a larger clan system, with interclan alliances, and a pastoral economy. Closely linked usually in a dependent role were the Damaraa people from central Africa whose culture combined pastoralism, hunting, and copper smelting. In northeastern and central Namibia the Herero a pastoral people from central Africa built up interlocked clan systems eventually headed by a paramount chief.
The unity of the Herero nation, however, was always subject to splintering. In the north the Ovambo people developed several kingdoms on both sides of the Kunene River. They were mixed farmers largely because of a more hospitable environment for crops and also smelted and worked copper. To the east the related Kavango peoples had a somewhat similar but weaker state system. On the margins of Namibia—i. Until the s, European contact and penetration were slight.
Afrikaner explorers after and Afrikaner traders and settlers about came to Namibia and eventually reached the southern boundaries of the Ovambo kingdoms, notably at the Etosha Pan.
They—together with German missionaries, explorers of varied nationality, British traders, and Norwegian whalers—did not play a dominant role before Instead, they created the first avenues for trade ivory and later cattle and introduced firearms. The latter heightened the destructiveness of conflicts among the various clans and peoples.
So did the arrival, after the first quarter of the 19th century, of the Oorlam-Nama from the Cape. Their military technology which included horses, guns, and a small mobile commando organizational pattern was modeled on that of the Afrikaners. They came to dominate the resident Nama Red Nation and Damara.Descended from a group of Herero herders who fled Angola in the early 16th century, the Himba people live in the Kunene region formerly Kaokoland in the northwest of Namibia.
While these nomadic pastoralists live between two worlds today, they have retained many of their ancient traditions, including the OtjiHimba language, a unique social structure and distinct body adornments. The Himba have traditionally been livestock farmers who breed cattle, sheep and goats as a source of both meat and milk. They also grow maize and millet for consumption, with their diets complemented by eggs, wild herbs and honey.
While men generally tend the livestock and can often be away from the home for extended periods, women do most of the work around the village. This includes looking after children, carrying water, collecting firewood, cooking and plastering the homes using a mixture of red clay and cow manure.
Himba houses are usually cone-shaped and made from palm leaves, mud and the manure of cows, with families moving from one dwelling to another throughout the year in search of good grazing pastures for their animals. One of the most distinct aspects of the Himba that has fascinated travellers for centuries is the ochre pigment that the women beautify their skin with.
Butterfat and ochre are blended into a paste that is known as otjize and sometimes fragranced with the omuzumba shrub that provides a natural insect repellant. It is designed to cleanse the skin and provide a sunscreen-like protection against the hot and arid climate of Kaokoland.
Himba women are also known to burn aromatic herbs in a container known as an ombware and use the smoke as a fragrance. The women are the artisans in the community, creating beautiful jewellery and other body adornments using iron, copper or shell.
Beaded anklets are worn to shield their lower legs against venomous animal bites, while a large white ohumba shell is often worn on the chest of women to denote their married status. The Himba also make aprons and girdles to wear using animal skins, together with every day items like baskets, pottery and musical instruments.
Himba men also wear animal skins and those of high social status are sometimes distinguished by a small springbok horn worn around their neck. They may also wear metal bracelets that are symbolic of their sacred connection with the ancestors. Married women wear an erembe headpiece with many braids that are coloured and shaped with otjize, while married men will usually wear a cap or head-wrap.
Widowed men will usually remove this to expose their unbraided hair, while single men will wear one plait elongated towards the back of their necks. The Himba are polygamous, with most men and women having multiple partners that are encouraged with mutual consent.
Boys are circumcised as a rite of passage and are considered a man upon marriage, while girls are also circumcised, but only considered women once they have borne a child. Because women generally enjoy equal rights in Himba tribes and make most of the economic decisions, it is often perceived to be a matrilineal society.
However, men will inherit wealth which is determined by cattle through the brother of their mother, rather than from their own father. Himba marriage celebrations usually include an Ondjongo dance that symbolises herders hunting oxen and is representative of partners finding one another.
A death is usually marked by the slaughter of several cattle and three days of feasting, with the deceased believed to remain in the homestead for two generations. The Himba live in fairly remote villages in Kaokoland and most produce food for their own consumption.Home Africa Namibia Culture of Namibia.
12 Artists From Namibia You Should Know
Information was not check the site moderator! Many craftspeople produce objects for local use and the tourist trade; wood carvings containers, furniture, animals from the Kavango and basketry from Owambo are the best known examples. Some craftspeople have formed organizations to assist each other with production and marketing.
The music of Namibia has a number of folk styles, as well as pop, rock, reggae, jazz, house and hip hop. The Namibia Society of Composers and Authors of Music NASCAM has helped promote Namibian music within and outside the country, but despite this, the Namibian music industry remains undeveloped, with no major record labels or distribution infrastructure.
A lack of focus to produce economically viable Namibian music products and the absence of effective marketing and distribution structures are two of the factors inherently hampering the development of the local music industry. Culture can also be seen in the clothing that they wear.
11 Musicians You Should Know From Namibia
Women in different areas of Namibia do dress differently from each other. Some women wear traditional clothing while others wear Victorian styled clothing because of the influence of the missionaries in the area. The Herrero women wear traditional style clothing and dress themselves with traditional jewelry. You can also tell that one woman is different in rank by just observing their hairstyles.
A certain hairstyle can tell you the age and social status of the woman on society. For agriculturalists, the staple foods are millet and sorghum; for pastoralists, dairy products. Beans and greens are eaten with millet in the north, but otherwise few vegetables are grown or consumed.
Culture of Namibia
Hunting and gathering, more important in the past, still provides a dietary supplement for some. Meat is highly desired and eaten as often as it is feasible—daily for some, on special occasions for others. Fish consumption is slowly increasing with government promotion of Namibian fish products. Despite the small population, there is great linguistic variety. Most Namibians speak Bantu languages like Oshiwambo and Otjiherero as their first language.
Afrikaans was promoted as a language of wider communication before independence and is still widely spoken in southern and central Namibia. At independence, English was chosen as the primary language for government and education because it was not associated with any particular ethnicity and could facilitate interaction with the outside world.
Urban dwellers, young people, and northerners are more likely to have learned it.Botswana, an African country just north of South Africa, is home to many traditional art forms, from painted designs on houses and basketry to dance.
Some contemporary forms of traditional practices, such as clay pottery, have been revived in response to the tourist trade. While Botswana has a rich oral tradition in poetry, myth and legend, publication of written works in Botswana did not begin until the the 19th century with a translation of the Bible into Tswana, which is spoken in southern Africa.
Few indigenous works have been translated into English. Designs have long been painted on houses in Botswana, according to "Culture and Customs of Botswana. The painting of houses appears to be a dying practice, although commercial building still are commonly decorated with painted designs.
The artists who decorate their houses with these designs typically are women, and their designs often re aabstract expressions of creativity.
The traditional baskets of Botswana are made of leaves from a fan palm called mokolwane, according to Botswana Tourism. The cut leaves are boiled in a natural earth-tone dye, and basketmakers use the lemao, a sharpened wire with a wooden handle, to insert and wrap the leaf in the coil of the basket.
Nature-inspired designs often are incorporated into the baskets, which are noted for their quality and originality. Most baskets in the country are made in the northwest and are regarded as some of the finest baskets made in Africa.
They are sold internationally as well as domestically. Clay pottery was made in the country for nearly 2, years, but like traditional house painting, it also is a fading practice. Potters are usually women who make pots by building up coils into the desired shapes.
They then burnish the pots with a smooth stone and decorate them. Potters started using ocher and graphite to create decorations of contrasting colors from on. The pots are fired at temperatures of 1, to 1, degrees F.
Contemporary clay pottery in Botswana is produced primarily for sale to tourists. Dance in Botswana tribal society serves a number of purposes. It is a community event that is part of ancestor worship, spiritual and healing practices.
Other traditional arts in Botswana include bead work, wood carving and leather craft, which utilizes the skins of both wild animals and livestock to fashion blankets, mats and clothing. Early musical instruments include the mbira and setinkana, both small piano-like instruments; moropa, a drum; and a stringed instrument called the segaba.
Ancient traditions are commonly blended with modern influences like reggae, gospel and jazz. Artists often travel to South Africa to work. Lexa W. Lee is a New Orleans-based writer with more than 20 years of experience. She has contributed to "Central Nervous System News" and the "Journal of Naturopathic Medicine," as well as several online publications.
Lee holds a Bachelor of Science in biology from Reed College, a naturopathic medical degree from the National College of Naturopathic Medicine and served as a postdoctoral researcher in immunology. Traditional Art of Malawi.It has a coastline on the Atlantic Ocean to the west.
For a period in its history, Namibia served as a German colony. The culture of Namibia is an amalgamation of the cultures of these ethnic groups. Lutheranism is the predominant Christian denomination in the country. Christian festivals are celebrated throughout the country. Two tribal groups living in Namibia, the San and the Himba, practice their traditional beliefs while a section of the Christian population also incorporates traditional rituals and customs in their religious life.
The indigenous religions are based on animistic beliefs where natural objects and phenomena are associated with supernatural powers.
The cuisine of Namibia is influenced by both the cookery practiced by the indigenous inhabitants and that introduced by the Europeans who colonized the country in the past. Millet, sorghum, melons, peanuts, beef, mutton, and dairy products are the subsistence food products in Namibia. Mealie is the staple diet of the people. Prior to colonization, the cuisine of Namibia used a wide range of plant products gathered from wild plants and meat obtained by the hunting of wild animals.
Livestock breeding began in Namibia about years back. That made meat and milk easily available. When German colonists settled in Namibia in the 19th century, German dishes were introduced in the country. Dishes like Wiener schnitzel and the German brewing tradition are quite popular in Namibia today. Namibia has a relatively small literary community. Oral literature in the form of folk tales and legends is more well-established than written literature.
Published literature in the form of poetry and prose are primarily in the Afrikaans and English languages. Products of indigenous art and craft are popular among the tourists visiting Namibia.
Wood carvings of the Kavango people and the basketry skills of the Owambo people are most noticeable. The different ethnic groups living in Namibia have their distinct music and dance forms. With modernization, many of these performing art forms are at threat of being lost. There is therefore a need to promote them. The National Theatre of Namibia is an important venue in the country that hosts stage music shows and dramas.
Local and national festivals in the country also serve as a platform to showcase the traditional dance and music of the country. Gender roles are generally well-defined in Namibia.
Men are expected to build and maintain homes, work in the field, tend to the livestock, plow fields, etc. Women do the household work, tend to the children, prepare food, and also provide agricultural labor. Polygyny that was a common practice in the past among most of the ethnic groups, is now strictly forbidden by law.
Although women in modern Namibia are moving forward, the incidence of domestic violence and rape in the country is still extremely high. The discriminatory beliefs and laws in the country are changing, albeit slowly. Weddings are extremely important social events and are attended by family and friends of the bride and groom.
Most wedding ceremonies are a blend of Christian and indigenous elements. The Namibians, especially those living in rural areas, reside as large family units, often with more than two generations living together under the same roof.
Namibians consider it very important to properly greet each other. Public displays of affection and emotion are frowned upon. Cattle play an important role in the life of a Namibian, especially those living in rural areas. Soccer is highly popular in Namibia.During the colonial period, many indigenous peoples were dispossessed of their lands and relegated to reserves established for each ethnic group.
The emphasis on ethnicity was opposed by growing nationalist sentiment, and Namibia became a unitary nation-state when it gained independence in Location and Geography. Coveringsquare milessquare kilometers on the southwest coast of Africa, Namibia is bordered by Angola and Zambia northBotswana eastSouth Africa southand the Atlantic Ocean west. The coast, with its productive fishing grounds and the deep water harbor of Walvis Bay, is edged by the dunes and gravel plains of the Namib desert.
Inland, the hills and plains of the central plateau are predominantly scrub savannah, gradually transforming into the Kalahari semi-desert to the east.
The flat north-central and northeastern regions have extensive flood plains and areas of dense vegetation. The driest country in sub-Saharan Africa, Namibia only has permanent rivers on its northern and southern borders. With large expanses of arid and semi-arid land, Namibia has a small population— about 1.
The population is youthful, with 44 percent aged fourteen and under and only 4 percent older than About 60 percent live in the far north, where rainfall is sufficient for grain farming. In Namibia's capital city, Windhoek, had a population ofLinguistic Affiliation. Despite the small population, there is great linguistic variety.
Most Namibians speak Bantu languages like Oshiwambo and Otjiherero as their first language. Afrikaans was promoted as a language of wider communication before independence and is still widely spoken in southern and central Namibia.
At independence, English was chosen as the primary language for government and education because it was not associated with any particular ethnicity and could facilitate interaction with the outside world.
Urban dwellers, young people, and northerners are more likely to have learned it. The colors on the national flag symbolize important natural and human characteristics of Namibia: sunlight and the desert yellowrain and the ocean bluecrops and vegetation greenthe blood shed in war redand peace and reconciliation white.
Schoolchildren sing the national anthem daily; it is also heard on the radio and at national celebrations. Namibia was originally inhabited by nomadic hunters, gatherers, and pastoralists livestock herdersthe ancestors of today's Bushman and Khoispeaking people. Agriculturalists and pastoralists speaking Bantu languages, such as the Owambo and Herero, arrived in the fifteenth through seventeenth centuries and settled throughout northern and central Namibia.Welcome to our tailoring company, Nandes Fashion.
We produce fashionable design products such as traditional dresses, african dresses, school uniforms, T-shirts, golf shirts and curtain. Of course, the dresses can be made to order and you can customize the details. Recently, we place a high priority on producing high quality T-shirts and golf shirts which are made of thick fablic and durable.
We are producing and selling fashionable design products such as toilet cover sets, kitchen sets, curtain and bed sets. Since your kitchen, dining room, bed room and toilet look great with our colorful and tasteful design products, they make you and your family feel happier. The owner ot this company, Ms. Smiling learned a needle work from her mother and received training through the Ministry of Youth National Services Sports and Culture on how to start business.
We are selling our products at shop in Grootfontein and Okakarara. Why not take a look our unique products! The firm now services an impressive, ever growing and wide array of clients, including individuals, schools and churches. Due to popularity and quality workmanship the firm not only makes and designs garments for the bride and groom, but for the entire wedding party too.
Employees are carefully selected due to demanding precision, creativity and style. In line with growth the workforce is steadily expanding too. The concept might not be new to the Namibian Market but our designs and material quality is always different from our competitors. In our package we include highest degree of customer care, dignity, respect, convenience and availability. Naruu Fashion and Design was started in and operated informally until it is a registered with the Ministry of Trade and Industry as a company in as a defensive name.
Naruu Fashion and Design intends to be recognized as a reputable, reliable and preferred trend clothing manufacturer and distributor to our targeted market.
The company will develop strong relationships with its stakeholders so that it will be viewed as indispensable company rather than just another ordinary participant in the clothing manufacturing business. We will work with the retailers of our products for product assortment and improvement.
We will add value to our community by maintaining a friendly work environment that recognizes the importance of our stakeholders. We are pleased to introduce you to our fashionable products. We produce fashionable design products such as traditional dresses, wedding dresses, T-shirts and school uniforms. We use wide varieties of unique and high quality fabrics, and raw materials of which are imported from not only South Africa and China but also Nigeria and India.
When you want to have your clothes custom made, you can choose a design from many catalogues in our shops. In addition, you can customize the details. Wedding dresses, wedding decorations, and dresses for children can be also customized for your needs. Since we can make original products, it is possible to serve a particular need of each customer. We take in some students of vocational training center as a job attachment, and offers training for those who wish to learn more about fashion.
In future, we would like to have a factory to manufacture school uniforms. Creative Fashions was started in and registered with the Ministry of Trade and Industry as a Sole Proprietor in Welcome to our traditional art crafts, Komesho Project.
We are creatint and selling all handmade Namibian unique crafts such as traditional dresses, dolls, decorations and soaps. These crafts are created by 10 community members and sold on open markets and streets at Windhoek, Swakopmund, Gobabis and Otjinene.
Since the Herero are proud cattle farmers, the traditional dresses are derived from a Victorian dresses, and a horn shaped hat which is said to represent the horn of a cow.
Why not get our traditional art crafts. We produce fashionable design products such as traditional dresses, curtains, bed covers and school uniforms. We are especially good at tailoring traditional dresses and blankets with many embroidery and patchwork for Nama ethnic women.
The owner, Ms.